html5 -102

What Image File Formats should be used for web pages, why (how does compression affect loading?)?

PNG should be used when:

  • You need transparency (either 1-bit or alpha transparency)
  • Lossless compression will work well (such as for a chart or logo, or computer generated image)

JPEG should be used when:

  • Lossless compression will not work well (such as a photograph)
  • Full color is needed

GIF should be when:

  • PNG is not available, such as on very old software or browsers
  • Animation is necessary

Despite myths to the contrary, PNG outperforms GIF in most aspects. PNG is capable of every image mode of GIF apart from animation, and when using the same image mode, PNG will have better compression due to its superior DEFLATE algorithm compared to LZW. PNG is also capable of additional modes that GIF cannot do, such as 24 bit color, and alpha transparency, but this is where you may run into problems on the web. Alpha transparency has compatibility issues with IE6 that are well documented (though hacks exist to get around). PNG modes include (this is just a small subset)

  • Palette colour of 2 to 256 colors (like GIF)
  • Palette colour of 2 to 256 colors, with transparent color (like GIF)
  • True color (24 bit color)
  • True color with alpha channel (24 bit color + 8 bit alpha transparency)

For best compression in PNG for the web, always use a palette mode. If you find PNG files are larger than the equivalent GIF files, then you’re saving the PNG in 24 bit color and the GIF in palette mode (because a GIF is always in palette mode). Try converting to palette mode first. If you find that your PNG files with transparency aren’t working properly in IE6 while your GIF files are, then you are using 24 bit color + alpha transparency in PNG and palette mode with a transparent color with GIF. You will have to make sure that you convert your PNG into a paletted color mode with a transparent color. PNG also has other modes such as palette color with alpha transparency in the palette. Modes such as this cannot be used in Photoshop.

How do you optimize images for the web?

The time a page takes to load is something every designer worries about, or at least is something that every designer should worry about. It doesn’t matter if the layout is nice and beautiful if it doesn’t function properly. Since images can be pretty heavy, this is certainly an issue to keep an eye on. And this is why today there are many tools available for web developers to help with compression of web visual content such as:


There are two kinds of image compression, lossy and lossless. Lossy compression means once you decompress the compressed data, you will not get the exact same image as the original. However, this will only be visible at a closer look. Lossy compression is good for web, because images use small amount of memory, but can be sufficiently like the original image. When you decompress a lossless image, you will get exactly the same image as the original. This compression uses greater amount of memory, so at times it may not be good for web.

Another tip:

What tricks and tips can you use to make your webpage load faster?

There are various factors responsible for high or low page loading speed. The following tricks and tips might be effective for each website to increase page loading speed:

1. Don’t use too much Java Script in your pages JavaScript is mainly responsible to slow down your web page loading speed. So, we must be careful for not using more JavaScript in our web pages because it leads to slow page loading speed. Always try to use compressed JavaScript because the uncompressed form of JavaScript takes more time to read by browser.

2. Use small size of media files Big size of images takes more time to open in web browser. So, if you want to make your website load faster, you must be reduce the size of your media files. You can do it by using different photo editing tools like Photoshop etc. If you don’t want to reduce the quality of picture, crop the unnecessary part of picture and upload on your website.

3. Remove blank space from the source code White space or blank space waste your page space. You can remove it to improve your website loading speed. It will take some time in removing the white space from source code. If you have no more time, you can remove blank space by using any HTML optimizer available on internet and can be used online. You can search on Google for HTML optimizer.

4. Enable web page caching Webpage caching is a mechanism to make a temporary storage of HTML pages and images. It means if anyone visits your site, browser stores that page temporary. Caching is also use to reduce bandwidth usage and server load. That’s why the websites load faster after using webpage caching. If you are running a WordPress blog, you can use some of the plugins like WP Super Cache etc. to enable caching of webpages.

5. Use content distribution network (CDN) Content Delivery Network is a large distributed system connected through multiple servers spread in multiple data centers across Internet. CDN can make heavy-multimedia and JavaScript pages load quickly. Content Delivery Network (CDN) is suitable for big and financially strong companies because of it’s expensiveness.

6. Keep CSS files small If your CSS file is over 75KB, that will tend to slow down the speed of your webpage. When running a smaller website, be sure to keep the file size below this number. If you require to exceed this capacity for alrger website, it would be smart to update the code regularly so that you trim down the unneeded parts. Alternatively, you can always just pay a website designer to do this job for you.

How can you use images in css, show us examples?

CSS allows you to adjust how the image displays on the page. This can be really useful for keeping your pages consistent. By setting styles on all images, you create a standard look for your images. Some of the things you can do:

  • Add a border or outline around the images
  • Remove the colored border around linked images
  • Adjusting the width and/or height of the images
  • Add a drop shadow
  • Rotate the image
  • Change the styles when the image is hovered over

Giving your image a border is a great place to start. But you should consider more than just the border — think about the entire edge of your image and adjust the margins and padding as well. An image with a thin black border looks nice, but adding some padding between the border and the image can look even better.

  • img { border: 1px solid black; padding: 5px; }

    It’s a good idea to always link non-decorative images, when possible. But when you do, remember that most browsers add a colored border around the image. Even if you use the above code to change the border, the link will override that unless you remove or change the border on the link as well. To do this you should use a CSS child rule to remove or change the border around linked images:

    img > a { border: none; }

    You can also use CSS to change or set the height and width of your images. While it’s not a great idea to use the browser to adjust image sizes because of download speeds, they are getting much better at resizing images so that they still look good. And with CSS you can set your images to all be a standard width or height or even set the dimensions to be relative to the container.

Here is an example of using CSS background images fro bullets:  

<div id=”navcontainer”>
<ul id=”navlist”>
<li id=”active”><a href=”#” id=”current”>Item one</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item two</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item three</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item four</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item five</a></li>

margin-left: 0;
padding-left: 0;
list-style: none;

#navlist li
padding-left: 10px;
background-image: url(images/arrow.gif);
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: 0 .5em;

How To Add a YouTube Video to Your Web Site and video in html5?

Steps to embedding a video the website:

1. Get the embed code in the code mode

Go to the page where your video is displayed in YouTube. You should be able to find the “Embed” code for the video. This is the code that you will insert so that the video will appear on your web page.Select the code, and copy it to your clipboard. That is, after selecting the entire block of text in the “Embed” box, click “Edit” on the menu bar and select “Copy” on the menu that appears.

2. Open your web page in Dreamweaver

Now start Dreamweaver, and load the web page where you want the video to appear, and click the spot on the page where the video should be placed. The blinking text cursor should appear in that location.

3. Insert the youtube embed code in

The simplest way to insert the YouTube code is to switch to Dreamweaver’s “Code” mode, which allows you to see the actual HTML that is produced by the editor for your web page. To do this, click the “View” menu, and then select the “Code” menu item on the menu that appears. The screen should switch from the visual layout displayed by the “Design” mode to show you the “raw” HTML for your page. Since you have already positioned your cursor at the place you want the movie/video clip to appear, all you have to do at this point is to insert the code you copied earlier. To do this, click the “Edit” menu and select “Paste” from the menu that appears. At the bottom of the page, in the Properties panel, you should see a button labelled “Refresh”. Click it. Switch back to the “Design” mode by selecting “Design” from the “View” menu. Although you won’t be able to view your video clip in Dreamweaver, a placeholder box should be visible on your page. If the position of the box is not satisfactory, for example, if the video is placed on the same line as an existing line of text, you can move that text away by simply hitting the ENTER key (or RETURN key if you use a Mac) after positioning the cursor at the beginning of the text in question. Once you’re satisfied, publish your page onto your site and test it by visiting the page with a web browser.

Adding a video to HTML5:

With your .html file open, we will add our simple <video> element. Somewhere in the <body>, add:

<video src="sample.mp4" id="movie" controls height="360" />

Noticed, we defined three attributes in our <video> tag: src, controls and height. The src attribute is where the video file is located. The controls attribute determines if the play/pause, time, volume, etc. controls show up on the page. Since we defined the controls attribute, the controls will be visible. We also defined the height attribute. In addition to the attributes we have defined, you can add the remaining attributes to the <video> tag.

  • Autoplay: the video will begin to play once page is loaded
  • Loop: continuously loops the video after it is finished
  • Preload: determines if the audio should be loaded when the page is or not. Note: this attribute is ignored if the autoplay attribute is specified.
  • Width: sets the width of the video player

That’s it! We added a video to the webpage.

How do you optimize video for the web?

Creating optimized videos for the Web takes a number of coordinated steps. First create a clean, noise-free video with the minimum amount of zooms, pans, and background detail and movement as possible. Then prepare your video for compression by cropping fuzzy edges, adjusting contrast and gamma, and delete any unnecessary frames. Finally compress your video with a high quality compressor like Cleaner. Use the data-rate formula (W*H*FPS/29000) as a starting point, and always use a 2-pass VBR and a multiple of 10 times your FPS for your keyframes. How do you optimize sound for the web and incorporate it in your web page? Optimize Web audio by creating small files while retaining acceptable sound quality.  The factors that impact file size and quality are:

  • sampling rate,
  • sampling resolution.

Sampling Rate

The sampling rate, measured in kilohertz (KHz), is set when sound is digitized.  It affects the audio range by defining the highs and lows of the digitized sound.  Higher sampling rates generate better quality sound and larger audio files.  Some types of sound, such as narration, do not depend on high and low ranges for better quality and can withstand lower sampling rates. The sampling rates typically used to digitize sound are:

  • 8 KHz,
  • 11 KHz,
  • 22.050 KHz,
  • 44.1 KHz,
  • 48 KHz.

Sampling Resolution

Sampling resolution (i.e., bit depth) is set when the sound is digitized and defines how much range the audio has in highs and lows.  Higher resolutions result in larger files and higher quality audio files.  Lower sampling rates and resolutions introduce noise (e.g., hiss, buzz).  Evaluate individual elements of the sound to identify the lowest sampling resolution that can be used without creating unacceptable noise. The following sampling resolutions are possible for digital sound:

  • 8-bit mono,
  • 8-bit stereo,
  • 16-bit mono,
  • 16-bit stereo.

Tips and Hints

Start recording audio using the standard CD quality sampling rate and resolution (i.e., 44.1 KHz at 16-bit resolution).  Use digital audio editing tools to process the sound and then, resample to 16-bit, 22.05 KHz or lower if the sound quality is acceptable. Halving the sampling rate reduces the file size by half. Changing the resolution from stereo to mono also halves the file size. Dithering adds noise and is more obvious in files with silences between sounds such as narration or dialogue.  It works best on files with rich, full music.

Embedding sound into the web page:

Embedding sound is tricky. You have to choose between a method that works but is not valid HTML or a method that isn’t valid, but doesn’t work on most browsers. Here is a step by step tutorial:

  1. Open your Web page in an HTML editor. Your editor must have the ability to edit the source code to follow this tutorial.
  2. Start with an object element:

    element, add an embed element:

  3. Add the following four attributes that are the same as the parameters to the object:
  4. Add the correct MIME type for your sound file into the type attribute:
  5. Add the pluginspage attribute so that people who don’t have the correct plugin for your sound file can go download it. For WAV files, I recommend QuickTime:
  6. When you’re done, your HTML should look like this:


  1. Don’t validate your Web page with the embed tag. It won’t validate because that tag is not part of the specification. But only Safari supports the object tag for sound.
  2. Check out the embed tag for additional attributes. Many of them you can use as parameters on your object as well.
  3. I recommend always setting the controller=”true” attribute. That way, if someone doesn’t want to hear sound on your Web page, they can turn it off.

For the most accessible (and valid) sound, just link to your sound file.

<a href=”eureka.wav”>Eureka sound file</a>

That gives your customers the choice to listen or not.

What are some of the dos and don’ts of web design with media?

Here are some tips to make sure your site maximizes its potential and doesn’t fall foul of some common mistakes on the Web.

Top tip: most important is that you take time to think about what you want your site to achieve, and then spend even more time planning how the structure and content will fit together. This is the first step towards creating a winning Web site.

1. Use valid HTML and CSS – validate your code to make sure your pages are likely to be displayed in a consistent and accurate fashion.

2. Check your site in several browsers – your site may look fine while you’re making it, but that may not be the case on other browsers. Check your site in as many browsers as you can before you publish it for the world to see.

3. Keep your graphics small – don’t keep your visitors waiting while huge images load on the page. Take a look at our information on optimising images for the Web.

4. Keep your text short and focused – Web users’ attention spans are quite short, so don’t bore them with reams of text. Use subheadings, bulleted lists and highlighting to make the text more appealing.

5. Make navigation easy – if your site has more than a few pages, give visitors an easy way to move around the site. Use a simple navigation menu system at the top or left of the page.

6. Use the right colours – don’t be garish with your colour scheme, and remember that your text should contrast well with the background – a light background and dark text is the classic way to go.

7. Make hyperlinks obvious – make sure that visitors know which parts of the page they can click on to move to other pages. Hyperlinks should stand out from normal text.

8. Make the text big enough to read – don’t use a small font just so you can cram in more text. Use a size that’s comfortable for most people to read, e.g. 14-point text.

9. Don’t use pop-up windows – many users will have set their browsers to block pop-up windows, so don’t force them on your visitors.

10. Provide an FAQ – think what the main reasons are for people to visit your site, and try to answer any common questions in a single, easy to reach place.

What resolution should you design for?

Web page resolution is a big deal. Many sites that teach web design have written about it, and depending upon who you believe, you should design pages for the lowest common denominator (640×480), the most common resolution (800×600), or the most cutting edge (1280×1024 or 1024×768). But the truth is, you should design your site for the customers who come to it.

  • 800×600 is very common
    Many website design guides recommend designing websites for 800×600 resolution. While this resolution is more common on the web at large, this may not be the case for your customers. If you’re planning on redesigning your website, take a few weeks to analyze your browser statistics to determine the most common resolutions used by your customers.
  • 1024×768 is a lot more common
    Screens are getting larger and 1024×768 is the other popular size to design for because many designers have monitors that support this natively. But this resolution can be fairly hard to read for many people. A 14-inch laptop monitor might support 1024×768, but the text is virtually unreadable. And laptops are very popular.
  • 1280×1024 and larger are less common
    Mostly you’ll see these larger resolutions on desktop computers, or high-end laptops. But often at these larger sizes, the customers aren’t browsing full-screen. So designing a site that’s wider than 1000 pixels is going to cause horizontal scroll bars on most screens.

How to handle screen size based on resolution:

  1. Determine who views your site
    Review your web log files, or put up a poll or a script to determine what resolution your readers actually use. Use the real-world browser size script to track your readers.
  2. Base your redesigns on your customers
    When you redesign your site, build it based on the facts of your website. Do not base it on statistics of “the web” or what other sites say. If you build a site that fits the resolution your customers use, you’ll keep them a lot happier.
  3. Test your site at various resolutions
    Either change your own screen size (Change Your Windows Screen Resolution or Change Your Macintosh Screen Resolution) or use a testing tool.
  4. Don’t expect your customers to change
    They won’t. And placing restrictions on them just encourages them to leave.

Designing for mobiles?

Here is a few tips for a web developer to keep in mind when it comes to deal with designing for mobile devices:

  • Design with a fluid layout, min-width: 320px

There are two factors that make this a necessity. First, mobile device screens are so small that you really need to utilise all of the available space. Second, there are a lot of different screen resolutions out there. The only way to utilise all of the space available on different sized screens is with a fluid layout.

  • Turn off auto-scaling

Mobile devices will assume your website is optimised for desktop computers unless you tell them otherwise. Add a viewport meta tag to the head section of your HTML to set the width of your website to match the width of the display, render with a zoom level of 100% and prevent the user from zooming in/out.

  • Make clickable elements big enough for a fingertip, ≈44px²

Your mobile visitors don’t have the accuracy of a mouse – they are often using their fingertips on a touch screen. Don’t make them put their fingers through a pencil sharpener just to click your button! Apple has said that the average finger tap on an iPhone is 44px by 44px (in your high res Photoshop doc that will be 88px by 88px), so aim to make clickable areas at least that size. This doesn’t mean you have to design gigantic looking buttons. Just add some padding to your small buttons to enlarge the clickable area.

  • Don’t use hover states

Today’s touch screens can’t detect when a finger is getting close to touching, so the concept of rollovers does not apply. On the iPhone your :hover style will actually display on click and then remain on screen even after the user takes their finger away, which can be really annoying. So the rule is – don’t use :hover in your CSS or mouseover in your JavaScript.

  • Create icons for your site

Hopefully users will really love your site and add it to their home screen for easy access. Don’t ruin the mood with an ugly default icon!

  • Reduce load time by using CSS3 instead of images for gradients, rounded corners, shadows, etc.

Depending on the devices you are targeting, CSS3 can be an excellent option for mobile design. With old school web design techniques, a button with a gradient and rounded corners might consist of 9 separate image slices, a bunch of nasty non-semantic markup and a hefty amount of CSS. With CSS3, you can create this:

  • Use an HTML5 doctype

Not all browsers implement HTML5 features, but they will still accept an HTML5 doctype.

<!DOCTYPE html>

Using this doctype declaration will allow you to display HTML4 elements to all browsers, and then add in additional functionality for the browsers that support HTML5.

  • Make your site operate offline

Your visitors won’t always have a fast Internet connection. If you’re designing the type of site that will have return visitors, consider leveraging the client-side storage capabilities of HTML5. It can be as simple ascreating a cache manifest file that tells the browser what files it needs to cache for offline access. A more advanced option is to create an SQLite database on the client with JavaScript.

  • Include an option for your mobile visitors to view the normal website

Detection scripts can get it wrong, or a user might simply prefer not to use the mobile optimized interface. So my final tip is, always offer users a way to switch back to ‘normal mode’.



Assignment 5 Formal Essay – Digital Art

In art, truth and reality begin when one no longer understands what one is doing or what one knows, and when there remains an energy that is all the stronger for being constrained, controlled and compressed.

                                               Henri Matisse, form “Constraints and creativity in digital the arts” by Linda Candy, University of Technology, Sydney NSW 2007 Australia E


One of the major directions of New Media art practices is digital art. It is being a part of the scope of contemporary arts such as virtual art, computer robotics, interactive art and biotechnologies, which are all using new media technologies in their creative processes. The very first artworks created in this field began with the progress of computer technologies and the new possibilities brought by its development, which in turn led the beginning of the era of digital arts. This article will discuss how do the digital art technologies being refined, utilized and applied in the world of contemporary art in our days, as well as how does it evolve and what are the issues related to this field of art today.

Before I started my research I had a notion of digital artworks like media products, prints, graphic design or computer animation created by machines and the software it uses, but I never thought of it as such a specific and the same time a broad segment of new media. Therefore, my understanding of digital arts in general was mixed with other practices of new media field. I also, for instance, would not consider contemporary electronic music as a part of digital art scope. The picture of digital art was based mainly on the media products and technologies it was made by, for example digital camera producing digital video thus it creates a digital art. But according to Bruce Wands in “Art of the Digital Age” digitized text data or raw video/audio records are not usually considered as digital art, but could be modified by digital technologies and the software into the digital artwork, such as visual effects added into the film scene. Manipulating and transforming raw media sources by digital technologies would be considered as digital art works. Therefore taking a picture with a camera, whether it’s analogue or digital, and modifying it with computer software such as Photoshop, in order to produce a visually altered graphic work or use as a part of a computer project such as 3D piece in video game, would be considered as digitally produced artwork.

Generally, being a part of new media, digital art encompasses a wide range of digitally produced arts from visual art to sound producing. Considering the digital visual art movement, probably one of the basic directions in digital art field, it had an impact on all areas of the previously existed visual arts such as sculpture, drawing and painting. Although all of these analogue arts are highly developed and practiced widely in our days, digital technologies opened a new way to experiment and produce in the world of art. After it’s been launched back in 50’s-60’s and started its way of changing the visual and sound reality, the whole world far beyond the art edges has started to change drastically. In our days there are no limits in creative possibilities of digital technologies used in visual and audio practices. From 2D computer graphics based on raster graphics, to 3D technologies employing vector graphics and more complex digital installation art, visual modeling and shape transformation knows no limits today. Gradually, so called “digital art revolution” by JD Jarvis, an American digital media artist and founder of “Dunking Bird Production”, gave the birth or enhanced heavily some of the highly developed digitally based industries in our days such as visual effects in movies production and video game industry.

Visual arts is a huge part of digital media field today. The very first signs of it in form of storytelling tool has started to appear as early as 30000 years ago on the walls of Chauvet cave. Its ancient inhabitants attempted to express their visual imagination through the drawing art by using a charcoal or a stone shard. Unconsciously, they have started the inevitable process of visual art development, which subsequently appears in later civilizations, such as Early Egyptians, in forms of hieroglyphs and eventually becomes a starting point for writing and literacy in later centuries. Depicting events as a supporting part of the stories was a part of tribal storytelling in the early society. Such traditional way of conveying a story was evolving through the centuries up to the era when communication and education through the visual content jumped on the totally new, yet undiscovered level of possibilities of printing production. As printed press appeared with technological progress back in 14th century it automatically gave a born of a new form of visual art, later called graphic design. Since then, the art of visualization had its impact on different segments of social life and evolved in various ways. Artists of visual craft were exposed by technological progress during the centuries and the art was evolving and changing accordingly. From painting and mosaic, to printing and architecture, and subsequently generated a photographic art in 19th century. These analogue technologies were the beginning of the new form of two dimensional visual art, which e creates a motion picture art. All these advancements in visual arts during the past eras have been refined by its developers along with technological evolution up to our days where the most classical concepts of the traditional arts are being combined into a new sophisticated form of digital art.

But digital media art today, highly influenced by dynamically developing technologies, becomes more than just art even a decade ago. Since the portability and advantage of new digital devices become more sophisticated and accessible to general public, the art itself becomes more socialized and interactive in different ways.

         For instance, back in 80’s one of the first series of powerful computers were introduced to the public in New York and one of them, Amiga 1000, was used by Andy Warhol to create digital picture of Deborah Harry right on the stage in front of the public. The very first experimental digital art was created by using demo software Pro Paint in real time and the results worked impressively on the crowd. ( Reimer, Jeremy, 3-4)

After nearly a few decades later such visual art can be done simply by a few clicks on our smartphones by anyone with a minimum knowledge on media technologies. Thus the art itself had to shift accordingly with the technological progress. Digital artists today do not constrain themselves simply by dimensions of visual presentation, but rather combine a few modern technical aspects in order to produce more experimental, defiant and crossing boundaries artwork. Since the complexity and advantage of the tools available for the artists today gives an enormous technical freedom, only imagination is a limit in creative process. Therefore the potential of such collaboration of digital technologies and arts being exploited on different perceptual, communicative and aesthetic levels. As an intricate example of combination of science, sound events, software processes and visual objects could be the installation by the artist group Knowbotic called “Naked bandit/here, not here.” A great representation of new media art created in a way of interacting with audience, in abstract, weird and mysterious appearance. Just as a new technologies look to the public before they get used to it. I guess such unique and progressive way of creativity brings that type of digital art on a highly intelligent level. Where audience pushed to ask questions, get exploded by new and inspiring experience.

      “Media art today engages with the world in more concrete ways than it did 10 years ago. The earlier obsession with the newest tool and the latest technical advance has been replaced by a critical application of media and digital technologies and the exploration of their social impact and cultural meaning. As digital technologies are becoming more commonplace and widely integrated, an explicitly artistic—rather than purely curious.” (Andreas Broeckmann, 10-11)

 In contrast to the area where complexity of human ideas coming from analogue realm brings sophistication into their digital artwork, another form of computing art is constrained by using only the computer coding technique to generate a digital image art. This absolutely exciting and complex form of art is based on fractals which are being manipulated by mathematical codes that are generated by computer program. This fractal-generating programs allow artist to create an expressive two dimensional visual surface which could be modified by applying non fractal imagery during the post-production process. The self-generating continuing patterns used in this technique creates an absolutely unique visual forms ever existed in the world of art. In general, such form of digital art is totally depend on computers software and technically could not be developed before the digital technologies arrived. The fact that fractal art does not use any analogue based platforms in order to generate a creative process, but only relies on computer coding, brings up a notion of totally new generation of art, based on non-human factors, but rather machines. That concept is fundamental in the whole movement of digital art in our days. Such kind of self- generating modern art in some way blurring the key edges of the classical art creating concepts.

Talking about the concepts and the limits in the world of digital art, it would be inappropriate not to mention the peculiar issues caused by technological potential of digital tools. The new generation of digital artists facing the unlimited freedom of opportunities brought by technologies, but such unlimited abilities may reduce the focusing aspect of an artist by a broad range of suggested applications and their advantages. Thus the concept of constraints in creative process is widely practiced in artistic environment. It principles based not on strict criteria or rules, but rather on defining the specific set of rules applied to a certain creative style or approach individually by the artist.

       For example, artists who are practicing digitally generated visual art, find the concept of constraining in their creative process as an essential thing. Such a case when the artist using a computer code or an algorithmic software to produce the art piece, he deliberately narrowing down the range of potential possibilities suggested by the program. Since there are infinite numbers of the instances generated by the computer code, the constraining approach is the way to filter and determine the best satisfying result for the artist. Again, there is no general pattern to apply and every artists finds his to apply such theory in his practice. Finding the true nature of the underlying structure of particular project is what the whole concept about. (Linda Candy, 366-367)

Defining the specific set of constraints helps artist not just focusing on the idea that he intends to express in his work, but rather to refine it and hone his unique creative style which would be recognized specifically in his works. Besides, the set of rules helps to shape the implicit structure of the potential project, focusing attention on developing and digging up the inner entity of the idea itself. The concept of setting constraints within digital arts practices implies development of understanding the enhancing aspects of new media arts in general and how do they influencing the movement of contemporary art.

As the technological landscape changes dynamically today, the art which is created by digital tools depends directly on upgrades and inevitable progress in computer industry. Thus the issue of preservation and saving the existing works of digital art has been arisen by artists and curators of digital art field so susceptible to technological change. In order to keep contemporary art works alive and preserved for the future generations, activists facing the range of practical, theoretical and methodological problems related access, function, context and meaning of digital art. The other issues such as representation, restoration and access are also create challenges for the museums of contemporary art.

As Rick Reinhart noted, digital and media artworks have questioned “traditional musicological approaches to documentation and preservation because of their ephemeral, documentary, technical, and multi-part nature and because of the variability and rapid obsolescence of the media formats often used in such works. It is not feasible for the arts community to keep the original equipment and software in working order over the centuries and industry has no incentive to continue producing old parts or to keep all new equipment backward compatible indefinitely (Perla Innocenti, 472)

It is obvious that digital art is relatively new and yet novel form of art that requires a new suite of methodologies in its preservation. Traditional conservation practices focusing on a physical matter of an art work, where contemporary art forms are more complex and required more comprehensive approach. It’s important to preserve the identity of a digital work in appropriate conditions maintained by the museums and art collectors.

As it was suggested by Pip Laurenson, Head of Time-based Media Conservation at the Tate Museum, such identity may be considered as a collection of artwork which contains the artist’s instructions, approved installations intended to act as models, an understanding of the context in which the art was made, and the degree to which the artist specifications reflect his or her practice at the time the art was created.( Francis T. Marchese, 303)

 Thus accommodation of such art works in museums required regular maintenance and consistently upgrading system, as well as technical support and supplementary materials which would be related to particular art piece. Facing all this complications, the new inherent regulations and practices are introduced and employed in most of well-known asylums of modern art such as Whitney Museum’s AirPort or New York’s Museum of Modern Art.

Summarizing the picture of modern digital art today is equivalent of the attempt to depict the whole universe in one constrained frame. It is obviously fresh, very diverse and developing form of art which are very exciting and promising factors. Considering how many existing mobile tools are available in this field simply for everyone, it’s no surprise that digital art literally flooded our modern world and at some pint it’s hard to determine where the boundaries for such art movement are and how critically distinguish quality work from mainstream. I guess this is a natural side effect of the digital reality we are living in, which in fact gives us so much opportunities to express ourselves and create today. The art that current technology invites demands new artistry, new expressions, and perhaps even new forms of art. The art which is asking questions and provokes spectaculars, leaving a space for imagination. And that what I find the most fascinating about it: to live and experience in the era where something that never existed before appears almost every day. Something that unites all people in the world and help to understand each other on the new level of comprehension founded by symbiosis of technologies and arts.


Bibliography (cited and annotated)

   George F. Hurlburt, Jeffrey Voas, “Storytelling: From Cave Art to Digital Media”, IT Professional, (Volume:13 , Issue: 5), Sept.-Oct. 2011, 4-7.

This article describes the evolution of visual form of arts from ancient times with primitive techniques up to first printing technologies and to modern days, where digital technologies dictate new conditions for media arts and blurring the boundaries of it distribution. Jeffrey Voas and George F. Hurlburt show direct connection between the “wall art” back in Stone Age and the visual media on Facebook wall in our days referring to tribalism from the ancient times. They also suggest that contemporary digital art potentially may supersede traditional printing media. But also arguing this assumption, by exemplifying the case with radio and television, assuming that digital media will “overtake the printed page as dominant form of portable knowledge.”

Andreas Broeckmann , “Digital culture, art, and technology”, Browse Journals & Magazines, MultiMedia, IEEE  (Volume:12 Issue:4) Oct.-Dec. 2005, 9-11.

The article discuss the influence of developing technologies on contemporary society and artists who link themselves and develop within that movement. It touches on social aspects which are being involved in the new media artistic practices and how the new forms of such digital art expressing the social related ideas. Broeckman elevates topic on shifting in social segments and art aspects after technological breakthrough, and how specialized users become general public users. He also discuss how contemporary media artists refining the principals of digital art by widely applying experimental and critique approach.

Linda Candy, “Constraints and Creativity in the Digital Arts” Leonardo, Vol. 40, No. 4 (2007) (pp. 366-367)

In this article Linda Candy describes the conceptual issue of modern digital art where the endless possibilities of digital tools could become a destruction in the creative process. She suggests that the artist, in order to fully employ the potential of the tools he used and adhere to the concept of the artwork he creates, must apply self-defined constraints during the creative process. By focusing on underlying structure of the project within the framework of generated constraints the artist eventually able to define his personal creative space and ultimately achieve his artistic style. She concludes that enhancing such constraints throughout the collaboration with technology by using programming language would be essential for digital artist in nowadays.

Reimer, Jeremy, “A history of the Amiga, part 4: Enter Commodore”, (October 21, 2007). . Retrieved June 10, 2011.

Anzovin, Steven, Fractal Compaction”, Compute 14.1 (Jan 1992): 88.

Alice Kelley, “Layering techniques in fractal art”, Computers and Graphics (August 2000), 24 (4), pg. 611-616 

Perla Innocenti,Preventing Digital Casualties: An Interdisciplinary Research for Preserving Digital Art”, Leonardo, ISSN 1530-9282, Volume 45, Issue 5, 2012, 472 – 473

Francis T. Marchese, “Conserving Digital Art for Deep Time”, Leonardo Volume 44, Number 4, (August 2011), 301-308

Wands, Bruce,“Art of the Digital Age”, Thames & Hudson. (2006). 10–11.


1. What is a computer network?

A computer network is a group of computers connected to each other electronically. This means that the computers can “talk” to each other and that every computer in the network can send information to the others (exchange data). Usually, this means that the speed of the connection is fast – faster than a normal connection to the Internet. Computers can be part of several different networks. Networks can also be parts of bigger networks. The local area network in a small business is usually connected to the corporate network of the larger company. Any connected machine at any level of the organization may be able to access the Internet, for example to demonstrate computers in the store, display its catalog through a web server, or convert received orders into shipping instructions.

1. Define and explain visually the difference between these different types of networks:

  • A Local Area Network (LAN) connects two or more computers, and may be called a corporate network in an office or business setting.  Many computers can be connected to share information and Internet connections. Most LANs use Ethernet to connect together.

  • Wide Area Network, or WAN, is made up of several computer networks connected together, often over the Internet. In most cases, the networks in WANs all belong to the same company or school.

  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), a data network designed for a town or city. In terms of geographic breadth, MANs are larger than local-area networks (LANs), but smaller than wide-area networks (WANs). MANs are usually characterized by very high-speed connections using fiber optical cable or other digital media.

  • The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks to serve several billion users worldwide. Basically it’s a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.

  • An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization. This term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization’s internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization’s information technology infrastructure, and may be composed of multiple local area networks. The objective is to organize each individual’s desktop with minimal cost, time and effort to be more productive, cost efficient, timely, and competitive.

  • A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network that is constructed by using public wires — usually the Internet — to connect to a private network, such as a company’s network. For example, there are a number of systems that enable you to create networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.

3. How do these two types of networks differ?

A peer-to-peer network is based on connection between multiple client machines where each having access to the other, and each acting as a server for the others. By setting up shares on any machine it allows access to its folders as required. A server based network is generally based on one machine offering services to the network, where all the other machines acting only as clients. This is easier to control, and centralize the data.

4.  What is the difference between a client and a server?

The client–server model is a distributed application structure in computing that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.[1] Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server is a host that is running one or more server programs which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources, but requests a server’s content or service function. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await incoming requests.

5.  What is the OSI model?

The Open Systems Interconnect Model (the OSI Model) is a theoretical model of networking that organizes network functions into seven layers (physical layer, datalink layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer and application layer) and specifies the communication interfaces between the OSI Model’s layers and between network endpoints utilizing an OSI Model-based protocol suite.
  • The OSI Model is a way of thinking about how networks ‘work’
  • THEORY: The OSI Model is a theoretical model
    • The OSI Model is not a technology.
    • The OSI Model is not a protocol.
    • The OSI Model is not a program or software.
    • The OSI Model sorts network communication functions into seven layers
    • Layer functions are not specified and should be transparent to other layers.
    • Layer Communications (how layers communcate with each other) ARE specified in the model
    • Layer behavior should be invisible other layers

6.  Identify 5 different network architectures, explain what each does.

Local Area Network
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a relatively small network that is confined to a small geographic area, such as a single office or a building. Laptops, desktops, servers, printers, and other networked devices that make up a LAN are located relatively close to each other. A key characteristic is that all of the equipment that comprises a LAN, is owned by a single entity.

Metropolitan Area Network
The term Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is typically used to describe a network that spans a citywide area or a town. MANs are larger than traditional LANs and predominantly use high-speed media, such as fiber optic cable, for their backbones. MANs are common in organizations that need to connect several smaller facilities together for information sharing. This is often the case for hospitals that need to connect treatment facilities, outpatient facilities, doctor’s offices, labs, and research offices for access to centralized patient and treatment information. MANs share many of the same security threats as LANs, but on a larger scale. The plight of an administrator in a central location granting access to countless offices that are scattered within a city is a difficult one that demands strict access control mechanisms to protect against unauthorized information access.

Wide Area Network
A Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a significantly larger geographic area than LANs or MANs. A WAN uses public networks, telephone lines, and leased lines to tie together smaller networks such as LANs and MANs over a geographically dispersed area. Connecting devices in different geographic areas together for information sharing, WANs are an important piece of enterprise networks. For example, consider the VisaNet global network used by Visa International. The VisaNet network connects locations throughout 150 countries to validate and debit credit-card transactions at over 24 million locations. By providing security and simplicity over a standard-based WAN architecture, Visa International relies on their network infrastructure to provide reliable access to merchants who accept Visa credit cards for transactions.

The Internet
The Internet is an example of a network that connects many WANs, MANs, and LANs into the world’s largest global network. Internet Service Providers (ISPs), such as UUNet and QWest connect the networks. These providers are responsible for maintaining the integrity of the Internet while providing connectivity between WANs, MANs, and LANs throughout the world. ISPs provide customers with access to the Internet through the use of points-of-presence (POP), also called network access points (NAP), in cities throughout the world. Customers are provisioned access to POPs from their own WANs, MANs, and LANs to Internet access to their users.

Personal Area Network
A more recent term used to describe a type of network is a Personal Area Network (PAN). PAN networks are usually wireless, established in an on-demand or ad-hoc fashion when needed to communicate between two or more devices. PAN networks can be used between devices owned by two different parties, or between two devices owned by one person, such as a PDA and a laptop or mobile phone. These networks are usually characterized as short-range, often limited to 10 meters or less in range.

7. Define and visual explain what the following terms mean:

  • Protocols

Sometimes referred to as an access method, a protocol is a standard used to define a method of exchanging data over a computer network such as local area network, Internet, Intranet, etc. Each protocol has its own method of how data is formatted when sent and what to do with it once received, how that data is compressed or how to check for errors in data. One of the most common and known protocols is HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), which is a protocol used to transmit data over the world wide web (Internet).

  • TCP/IP

The Internet protocol suite is the networking model and a set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. It is occasionally known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. This functionality has been organized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication technologies for a single network segment (link), the internet layer, connecting independent networks, thus establishing internetworking, the transport layer handling process-to-process communication, and the application layer, which interfaces to the user and provides support services.

  • FTP

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that hides (encrypts) the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (“FTPS”). SSH File Transfer Protocol (“SFTP”) is sometimes also used instead, but is technologically different.

  • HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.

  • Telnet

Telnet is a terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. To start a Telnet session, you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers.

8. What is a router?

Routers are small physical devices that join multiple networks together. Technically, a router is a Layer 3 gateway device, meaning that it connects two or more networks and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model. Home networks typically use a wireless or wired Internet Protocol (IP) router, IP being the most common OSI network layer protocol. An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband router joins the home’s local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN)of the Internet.

9. What is a network firewall?

Firewalls are computer network devices that protect a network from other less trusted networks. They are essentially network access control devices that permit and deny different types of traffic to travel into and out of an organization’s network. Most often, firewalls are placed at the network boundary to protect an organization from the great, unwashed masses on the Internet.

10.  What is the difference between a web and ftp server?

A web server is just a server that hosts web pages.
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This creates a connection between two computers to allow uploading and downloading of files. Once connected you can browse through the files in your FTP client and basically drag and drop them to your side. It can be quite slow for large files though. Also, FTP usually needs a password for access.

11. What is an IP address?

An IP address is a fascinating product of modern computer technology designed to allow one computer (or other digital device) to communicate with another via the Internet. IP addresses allow the location of literally billions of digital devices that are connected to the Internet to be pinpointed and differentiated from other devices. In the same sense that someone needs your mailing address to send you a letter, a remote computer needs your IP address to communicate with your computer.

12.  How do you transfer files for a computer to a server?


New Media Innovators

Group: Liah, Dmitry, Justice, Justin

1. Golan Levin, Scott Gibbons, Gregory Shakar, Yasmin Sohrawardy

Dialtones (A Telesymphony) (2001-2002: Golan Levin, Gregory Shakar, Scott Gibbons, Yasmin Sohrawardy, Joris Gruber, Erich Semlak, Gunther Schmidl, Joerg Lehner, and Jonathan Feinberg) is a large concert in which the music is produced through the carefully choreographed ringing of the audience’s cell phones. During the concert, the audience’s phones are called by live performers, using custom software which permits up to 60 phones to ring at the same time. This piece is innovative as it takes a common form of art (music) and puts an unexpected twist on it. Most people don’t consider the cellphone as an instrument, but these fine artists went above and beyond the norm. The Dialtones concert is new media as they used this technology in a creative and inventive way to create something beautiful, untraditional, and unprecedented. It interacts with the audience in a way that other concerts never can, as the audience member becomes a participant of the piece itself.

2. John Cage

John Cage is likely considered as a new media artist by virtue of to his conceptual music compositions and innovative solutions in this matter. His experimental approach goes beyond the conventional notion of musical concept. For instance, in the famous composition “4:33”, where the audience listening to nothing else but the sounds of the “silent” environment during the performance. The “composition” makes listeners to experience something that cannot be comprehend straightly and literally. I guess it bears rather the symbolic, provocative message than just a musical piece. People are involved in the dialogue with composition and being a part of real time installation. Absolutely unique experience! And I assume one of the major traits and distinctive feature of his approach as a new media artist is that he does not afraid to experiment and put himself on the spot of controversy. He is a challenger and a radical innovator, he explores the ways that hasn’t been revealed yet and ultimately succeed. I believe that’s one of the major distinguishing attributes of the new media concept and its inquisitive contributors.

3. Eric Whiteacre

Eric Whitacre is an American composer and New Media Artist. His most well-known New Media-related projects involve him working with “Virtual Choirs”. These virtual choirs consist of online musicians from around the world. Users were encouraged to record themselves and send in the videos. Some of his works involved thousands of people. Only in New Media would this kind of global collaboration be possible. Without the internet and social media, this kind of project would be very unrealistic. This artist is definitely an innovator, because he has taken the classical concept of choral singing and put a new spin on it that makes it more relatable to a modern audience.

4. Kutiman

Kutiman is a talented musician known for his work as a composer, producer and animator. Most notable is his THRUyou music video project that depicts a variety of example YouTube videos. This new media artist is unlike any other, presenting people with a unique variation of mashed up YouTube videos, which show the musical abilities of several individuals. These talented musicians filmed themselves playing instruments and from there uploaded their videos on YouTube. This is where Kutiman took the video’s of these several artists shown in the “THRUyou” music video and mashed it up into one remix video that somehow all blends together quite well. With the technology at hand nowadays it may be hard to be blown away by this mixed YouTube video, however the way Kutiman was able to have the individual videos transition and mesh so harmonically is rather remarkable.


All of these artists presented the world with something unique; they created something that was distinctive from much of the art that we come across today. Both Kutiman and Eric Whitaker put their own spin on the work from several different musicians and artists. John Cage put his ideas out in the world by having his audiences interpret his work in any which way, viewers of the art could also be incorporated in his presentations making for a very different experience for some. The large production concert, Dialtones (A Telesymphony) (2001-2002: Golan Levin, Gregory Shakar, Scott Gibbons, Yasmin Sohrawardy, Joris Gruber, Erich Semlak, Gunther Schmidl, Joerg Lehner, and Jonathan Feinberg) used the technology that the audience had to create a truly “New Media” experience. The four artists and composers that we investigated each took their knowledge and resources from the world to bring something different to the table. These composers ultimately transformed the standard for New Media Innovators while also changing how viewers interpret art.


Digital identity

Part 1.

Justin Weir’s online identity shows up on a few websites such as Facebook and Linkedin when searched in Google. After some searching has been done, his online identity didn’t provide a lot of information. I can’t say much of his interests or personality since the internet doesn’t reveal a lot about his activities. I believe it has a positive side since no potential employer or teacher for instance can’t see anything inappropriate related to his profile, thus no possible threat for his reputation existing on line. Nevertheless, I guess it would be beneficial for his professional portfolio to adjust his WordPress blog settings more efficiently, so it would start popping up when his name searched on the internet.

Part 2.

As more online social networks become available for users, the ways to present their professional identities increase enormously. Indeed of course, it’s important to maintain essential settings and adjustments regularly to make services like WordPress or Twitter work efficiently towards your goals. After I started using tagging in my blog on WordPress or even Instagram account I’ve noticed that after a while my blog started to appear on first page in Google when my name searched. I saw the results and figured on my own experience that the system does work if applied properly. Besides, for instance the Youtube profile I started several years ago, now deeply adjusted with web 2.0 settings. Thus my name and videos related to it appearing in first lines in search, which proves that tagging strategy works flawlessly when smart key words used for long enough. Of course, it takes time and research skills must to be applied, but eventually the smartly built online profile will provide a professional with wide range of business opportunities and connections.

Article reflection: Video games, emotion and the six senses

The article by Eugénie Shinkle “Video games, emotion and the six senses” discuss contemporary video games industry , its technological progress and potential development. It explains how it progressing from the initial joystick control gaming controllers to the “body control” platform, where users have to use their body in order to manipulate any virtual action. Such improvement gives more interacting for gamers and involves physical activities into the process, which reliefs the problem of limited activities in virtual gaming. It also changes the perception of gaming process itself. The new generation of game consoles such as Xbox Kinect  and Wii brings the notion of traditional gaming on new level and completely transforming the connection of a gamer and his avatar: “embodied control systems remove this limitation, collapsing the distance between self and avatar, and between real and virtual worlds.” (Shinkle, 912) Thus the gaming systems engaging all users’ senses to provide more interaction and performing in the process.

The article also implies that the new form of gaming devices are not just enabling the physical capabilities of users, but make the whole process more enjoyable “the Wii, the EyeToy, and interfaces like them, engage the gamer on a proprioceptive and kinaesthetic level, and in this aspect, they are quite simply, more fun.” (Shinkle, 913) And I guess it’s totally true. In fact, from my own experience comparing the conventional “keyboard” type of controllers to the motion enabled ones I can say that it’s a completely different experience. When your gestures and the body language are involved into the action, the gaming perception enhances your emotions and make you literally “feel” the virtual reality with your physical body. Although this type of  gaming platforms are still quite new and need to be developed more thoroughly, thus you can’t find such sophisticated games as for the “joystick based” platforms, the future of the gaming industry is already being split. I guess, just as it has been foreseen back in 80’s by science fiction culture, ultimately the technologies will blur the line between the virtual and physical realities. Therefore, employing the human body and its senses virtually via the gaming consoles is just another prominent step towards this unavoidable outcome.


Eugénie Shinkle, “Video games, emotion and the six senses”. UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER, LONDON, UK